redesign germanium transistor circuits

Germanium Can Take Transistors Where Silicon Can t

That list includes carbon nanotube transistors vertically oriented switches 3D circuits channels made from a mix of germanium and tin and transistors that operate by a process called quantum

Understanding Transistor Circuit Design Electronics Notes

The bipolar transistor has been available for over seventy years its technology is very well established and although field effect transistor technology is probably more widely used in integrated circuits bipolar transistors are still used in huge quantities in various analogue and digital circuits both within integrated circuits and as discrete electronic components

ElectroSmash You can Build the Perfect Germanium Fuzz Face

Buying the Germanium Fuzz Pedal online You can use our online shop to get The PCB As the BOM and all the documents are available you can get the parts and DIY you can also order NOS USSR Germanium Transistors The Full Kit The complete BOM and the drilled enclosure is included you only need soldering iron and basic tools The Design Details Only using a 9V battery no external

Table of Contents

13 ensp 0183 ensp Our company was founded in 1964 to supply aftermarket germanium transistor prod uct lines from the Philco Ford Company in Lansdale PA We relocated our headquarters and manufacturing facilities to Phoenix AZ in 1976 after acquiring a major product line from Motorola As the semiconductor aftermarket pioneer Lansdale recognized the

Transistors in fuzz comparsion YouTube

 · I made a simple one transistor fuzz circuit for a test Transistor sound samples as follows 2n2222a bc108b bc547 bc550 silicons and a mp42b russian germanium transistor Clipping diodes

Bones Hi Fi Germanium Transistor Based Audio Power

 · Mullard managed to manufacture their own version of the AD 149 PNP germanium output power transistor in a TO 3 package I ve heard do it yourself single ended germanium transistor based audio power amps during the mid 1990s and to my ears they sound as if they have almost unlimited slew rate as in 5 million volts per microsecond


GERMANIUM TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIER AD161 AD162 SCHEMATIC CIRCUIT DIAGRAM Ad Blocker Detected Thanks For Supporting Circuit Diagramz com We deliver up to date correct authentic data based on evaluation unbiased at no cost to you To do this we display ads from only trusted Partners LIGHT SENSITIVE CIRCUIT WITH TRANSISTOR AND LDR SCHEMATIC

Build this 8 Transistor Stereo Amplifier netzener net

In 1969 an 8 Transistor Stereo Amplifier kit was released but withdrawn in 1972 The reasons are unclear but I suspect the germanium matched pair transistors were expensive and hard to source In addition the amplifier kit was one of the most complex in the catalog and probably didn t work very well which would have been disappointing

germanium transistor Semiconductors Mouser

germanium transistor Semiconductors are available at Mouser Electronics Mouser offers inventory pricing datasheets for germanium transistor Semiconductors

Germanium vs Silicon Transistors Robert Keeley

 · Germanium will sound a tad different than silicon in a given circuit but it s also worth pointing out that a great many excellent sounding pedals uses silicon components It s funny actually the exact limitations that caused Germanium transistors to fall from favor in large scale electronics manufacturing are the same attributes that

It s Raining Germanium tonefiend com

 · A germanium transistor that tests over 250 for hfe on a regular tester like on a cheap DMM is certainly leaky and will sound crappy in any distortion circuit especially the FF The gain number isn t that important most Ges test around 100 unless they are leaky

The BJT Transistor Theory PCB Heaven

The symbol of the transistor has an arrow on the emitter If the transistor is a PNP then the arrow points to the base of the transistor otherwise it points to the output You can always remember that the arrow points at the N material These are the symbols 1 2 Transistor Operation 1 2 1 Understanding the Transistor through a Hydraulic Model

Chapter 48 Flashcards Quizlet

Start studying Chapter 48 Learn vocabulary terms and more with flashcards games and other study tools it regulates the current in a circuit A transistor can be toggled on and off as well as throttled by controlling the current flow through the emitter base circuit germanium and silicon with exactly 4 electrons in their valence

MAKE a 1 5V AM RADIO 5 Steps Instructables

Transistor may be 2N2222 2N2904 OR ANY OTHER GENERAL PURPOSE NPN TRANSISTOR BUT I RECOMMEND YOU TO USE GERMANIUM TRANSISTOR AC187 for better results because the radio only works with 1 5 Volts battery and the germanium transistor has a B E union rupture voltaje of 0 3 v and the normal transistor of silicium the B E union is 0 7 v

What transistor do you use as a The RadioBoard Forums

Which means just about any Germanium PNP Transistor will work in place of a CK 722 Most will likely work better since the CK 722 was a very early experimenter low cost transistor prior to the designs of better units 2N404 crosses to a GE 53 which is also a Ge PNP Audio Transistor

How to Design Analog Circuits Biasing Transistors

circuits And to compound the problem IcBo and ICEO doubled every time the temperature of the transistor increased by 10°C Although those factors are still im portant in modem silicon transistors the effect on the collector current is reduced considerably because the leakage current in silicon transistors is frequently low

Dive into a 1964 sine wave to square wave inverter with

 · In those days the early 1960 s Germanium PNP transistors were the common choice to make electronic circuits The whole Silicon transistor family as we know it since the 1970 s up

Testing Germanium Transistors For Leakage and Gain Crawls

 · Put a transistor in the socket Read the voltage and calculate the leakage Then throw the switch and apply 9 volts to the circuit and again measure the voltage Subtract the leakage from the second reading then multiply the result by 100 which gives the gain within a couple percent of the transistor

Redesign Germanium Transistor Circuits Part 4

Redesign Germanium Transistor Circuits Part 4 Transistors Hobby Electronics Hobby electronics got a huge boost from germanium transistor circuits The first hobby germanium transistors came out in the early 1950s One of the most famous germanium devices was the Raytheon CK722 In 1953 Raytheon began selling this part to eager amateurs

BC547 Transistor Pin Configuration Circuit and Its

The first transistor was designed with Ge germanium In modern electronics it is the basic building block and used in various electrical and electronic systems This article discusses an overview of BC547 transistor working and its applications What is a BC547 Transistor The BC547 transistor is an NPN transistor A transistor is nothing

Simple Audio Amplifier Using Single Transistor 3 Steps

Simple Audio Amplifier Using Single Transistor Audio Amplifier is a device which strengthen the weak signal Usually in audio systems we use amplifiers to drive the speakers of high power rating Now in this Instructables you are going to see how to make an audio amplifier using single trans

Vintage Radio and Electronics Germanium Transistors

GERMANIUM TRANSISTORS The following table lists the parameters for Germanium transistors The column marked Case is the outline of the transistor case Note Not all headings are the same parameter The case drawings are shown at the bottom of the page Cases GEC MAZDA STC AEI HIVAC NEWMARKET TEXAS Transistors

Redesign Germanium Transistor Circuits Part 2

Redesign Germanium Transistor Circuits Part 2 Conversion Examples Bias Network Etc Below are several examples of the conversion process I ve analyzed a famous germanium project book and come up with substitutions for base bias resistors and other parts The silicon replacements require twice the base bias voltage of germanium

Types of Transistors Junction Transistors and FETs

 · Transistor is the proper arrangement of different semiconductor materials General semiconductor materials used for transistor are silicon germanium and gallium arsenide Basically the transistors are classified depending on their structure Each type of transistors has their own characteristics advantages and disadvantages

How Transistors Work The Learning Circuit YouTube

 · If the circuit power supply is a 9V battery the base emitter voltage would need to be no more than 8 3V for the transistor to turn on and allow current to flow between the collector and

Articles Transistors in Vintage Radios

The first germanium transistors that I encountered as a kid were the glass encapsulated OCxx types OC44 OC45 OC71 OC81D OC81 etc The latter types listed were often further encapulated in an aluminium can for improved heat dissipation the OC81D was often used as a driver ahead of an inter stage phase splitting transformer and a

Redesign Germanium Transistor Circuits Part 3

Redesign Germanium Transistor Circuits Part 3 Necessary Circuit Changes Germanium to silicon conversion Left Original circuit from Chapter 4 Middle Silicon fixed bias version Right Silicon self bias version much stabler The drawings also show how to convert from PNP to NPN transistors Reverse all polarized parts

Substituting Silicon transistors for Germanium All About

 · I was wondering if anyone could help me locate a way to find substitutions for the following germanium transistors I d like to convert a circuit to silicon if possible I have SK3009 2N2428 and 2N2431 transistors Any help would be appreciated Thanks

Darlington Germanium Transistor Pair YouTube

 · How to make a germanium transistor pair for fuzz circuits diyguitarpedals OSHPark Shared Projects https www oshpark com profiles diyguitarpedals

Phototransistor Circuit Diagram Construction and Its

Phototransistor Circuit Diagram In the simple circuit assuming that nothing is connected to Vout the base current controlled by the amount of light will determine the collector current which is the current going through the resistor Therefore the voltage at Vout will move high and low based on the amount of light We can connect this to an op amp to boost the signal or directly to an

Radio Circuits Practical Analog Semiconductor Circuits

A schottky diode may be substituted for the germanium diode A silicon transistor may be used if the base bias resistor is changed according to the table Crystal radio with one transistor audio amplifier base bias For more crystal radio circuits simple one transistor radios and more advanced low transistor count radios

Redesign Germanium Transistor Circuits Part 5

Redesign Germanium Transistor Circuits Part 5 Project Vendor Links Allied Electronics A huge online catalog of parts Fast service Wholesale prices Online phone or mail orders I miss the retail stores of long ago In 1971 or so Radio Shack bought them all But the wholesale warehouse stocks many more parts than the store ever had

Transistor Wikipedia

A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power It is composed of semiconductor material usually with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor s terminals controls the current through another pair of terminals Because the controlled output power can be

Germanium Power Amplifier

In fact early circuits I ve seen typically have two single transistor stages in cascade as input and driver so why I thought I could get away with just one transistor as the driver I don t know Cock up 2 the OC44 I thought I d got and was going to use as the driver transistor isn t it s OC84

Germanium Transistor Amplifier Circuit Electronics

Electronics Projects Germanium Transistor Amplifier Circuit audio amplifier circuits transistor amplifier Date 2016 04 22 Once AD161 AD162 I had an experiment with pair I

Substitution of old germanium transistors in radio circuits

 · The original transistor would be a PNP germanium type AEI TR1A I think an RF type or at least designated that I believe by Tri ang Original battery voltage was 9V If you were to substitute that germanium PNP transistor with a modern PNP silicon transistor what transistor would you select Thanks 93320

Vintage Mullard Semiconductors Wylie

Of course Mullard also produced switching transistors for use in computers and logic circuits In 1959 they announced a number of these including the OC41 and OC42 in the SO 2 metal can and the rather unusual OC139 to OC141 which are germanium NPN types in the SO 2 glass package usually marked MADE IN HOLLAND

3 Transistor Short Wave Radio netZener net

The 3 Transistor Short Wave Radio illustrated in this article is a regenerative receiver design The Superheterodyne receiver uses many of the same components as the TRF and Regenerative receivers but adds special oscillator and amplifier circuits that make tuning into the desired station very easy